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Fedor Kazakov
Fedor Kazakov

Skin CC

Removal of pigmented layers of skin can sometimes also be achieved by injection of lactic acid [33], although this method tends to be not very effective, and involves a risk of infection and scar formation.

Skin CC

A third treatment methodology is the application of pulsed lasers, i.e., quality-switched (QS) lasers [34] that direct powerful light impulses with a duration in the nano- to picosecond range upon the pigment-containing skin area. Using ruby, alexandrite, and Nd:YAG lasers (neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers) provides a selection of wavelengths that correspond to pigment absorption bands (see Fig. 15 and Tab.1).

Extreme sudden heating of a pigment particle leads not only to mechanical crushing but also to the breaking of chemical bonds within the dye molecules. Basically, one observes intensified reactions analogous to those promoted by irradiation with visible and UV light. For example, N=N double bonds in azo dyes are broken apart by radical and reductive mechanisms (see Fig. 16). Red Pigment 9 (6) (permissible for tattooing purposes) is irradiated in an acetonitrile suspension for 10 minutes with a QS Nd:YAG laser (pulse duration 8 ns, 532 nm, 15 mJ per pulse, repeat rate 10 Hz). The cleavage products are questionable from a health standpoint: o-dichlorobenzene (7) elicits tumors in the kidney (rats) and the liver (mice), 2,5-dichloroaniline (8) is toxic with respect to kidneys (rats), and the two naphthol-AS derivatives (9) and (10) are skin irritants [36,37].

Permanent make-up refers on one hand to the purely cosmetic embellishment of limited areas of skin, e.g. eyebrows, eyelids, or lip contours (see Fig. 19). Alternatively, permanent make-up can be used to mask scars (e.g., due to burns, or surgical closure of a cleft palate) or loss of some particular body feature, as for example, in the optical reconstruction of the circular brown pigmentation that ordinarily surrounds a nipple after breast removal surgery.

Since with PMUs, smaller amounts of pigment are introduced into the skin and, in most cases, these pigments are constantly subject to exposure to light, the make-up will gradually fade, and will typically need to be renewed after three to five years. From a color standpoint, the pigments used tend to be less intense and varied, resembling natural hues of the respective parts of the body.

The dried leaves are ground up, mixed with water to give a paste, and then applied to the skin. The required exposure time is typically several hours. The eventual hue, ranging from bright orange to a dark mahogany-red, matures only after one or two days. In Western industrial nations, henna is utilized largely as a hair dye, but in India and the Islamic world, it is used as a skin coloring for the hands and feet.

The toxicological evaluation of Lawsonia inermis was the subject of heated public discussion among professionals, as well as in the press, some 15 years ago because various national and international expert commissions disagreed on the issue [41]. An initial fear of genetic harm from the material has in the meantime been allayed, and as early as 2003, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment established that neither henna as a whole nor lawsone as a component presents a genetic risk [42,43]. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that lawsone still does not appear on the positives list of the European cosmetic regulations, and thus remains technically forbidden as a skin coloration agent.

Recent years have seen an increasing number of reports of sometimes serious and persistent pathological changes (eczema, inflammations, hypopigmentation) following henna treatment (see Fig. 21) [44]. The culprit was soon identified: many henna mixtures were found to contain para-phenylenediamine (PPD) as an additive, a strongly sensitizing contact allergen, which with certain restrictions is nevertheless permitted in hair-dye products. The addition of PPD to henna pastes increases the color intensity, which can extend toward black, and causes the full color tone to develop more rapidly. No longer is it necessary that the pigment remain on the skin for several hours being washed off.

This freedom may seem attractive to some reckless people, but it should warrant considering the risk in advance. One thing is clear: Introducing dye particles irreversibly into deep layers of the skin, for a lifetime, amounts to undergoing a significant and wide-ranging laceration that brings risks with it. Risks of this magnitude should certainly be minimized.

[47] G. J. Nohynek et al., Under the skin: Biotransformation of para-aminophenol and para-phenylenediamine in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes, Toxicol. Lett. 2005, 158, 196.

Meanwhile, Hange continues taking advantage of the Female Titan's regenerative abilities in order to immobilize it, as the more it regenerates, the stiffer it becomes. However, in spite of the Titan's restricted movements, Levi and Miche are unable to break through its hardened skin. Erwin notes that it is an ability similar to that of the Armored Titan. He then decides to use explosives to blow up the target's wrists and orders the soldiers to ready them. At the same time, Levi lands on top of the Female Titan's head and sarcastically remarks that the person inside should just come out as they have no time to waste. He then begins threatening the Titan, stating that there is no way of escape and also asking whether it is okay to cut off the hands and legs of the person inside. Hearing this, the Female Titan lets out a loud screech that can be heard all the way to the forest outskirts, much to everyone's surprise.

The teens arrive and meet neighbors Trish Jarvis, her twelve-year-old brother Tommy, their mother, and the family dog Gordon. While going for a walk the next day, the teens meet twin sisters Tina and Terri, and go skinny dipping with them. Trish and Tommy happen upon the scene, and Trish is invited to a party to take place that night. Afterwards, when their car breaks down, Trish and Tommy are helped out by a young man named Rob. They take him to their house, where Tommy shows Rob several monster masks he made himself before Rob leaves to go camping.

When unmasked, Jason's facial appearance has now changed once again, but this time the design remains more faithful to his original younger design in the first film. By this, his left eye is now tilted towards the left corner while his pupil faces upwards, his head size is now much more bigger than before, and his overall face more like his younger self. However, he is now seen with his left ear pulled out a bit more while the right ear appears visibly normal, and his lower jaw filled with his teeth distorted and out of place protrude to the left side of his mouth. From the events of Higgins Haven in III, his bloody axe wound in his head has bled to the side and back of his head via the positioning of his head laying on the ground, the right side of his face appears to be rather wrinkled from his head position, and has a slightly paler tone in his skin color. A new addition to the game now has his eyes all blood-shot from the head trauma wound of the axe.

He wears a light under-shirt, printed at the chest with a large star. His shoes and pants are of a piece in a snakeskin texture. He wears a single leather belt, studded in two rows, folded behind itself after the buckle.

With Wheel of Fortune defeated, the group soon saw that the user, ZZ, was just a skinny man, his arms being the only muscular part of his body. In order to make sure he wouldn't attack again, they chained him to a rock and took his passport. The obstacle now cleared, Jotaro and the others put the Runaway Girl on the next plane back to Hong Kong, despite her protests.[31]

Reaching Cairo, Joseph used Hermit Purple in order to gain a photograph of DIO's new mansion. They kept asking around but could not find anyone that knew its location. They then met a man, Daniel J. D'Arby, who claimed to knew the whereabouts of the mansion. However, being a gambler himself, D'Arby told them they had to gamble with him in order to learn such information. Polnareff played a game in which he guessed which piece of beef jerky a cat would get. But Polnareff lost the bet when the cat took the other piece and D'Arby took his soul in the process. D'Arby revealed himself to be an enemy Stand user and anytime someone lost at his games his Stand, Osiris, would take their soul. Joseph played a game involving dropping coins in an already-full glass of liquor, the loser being the one that made the liquor spill over. Joseph was seemingly winning the game (using tactics of his own), until D'Arby was able to get one more coin in, Joseph's next coin being the one to lose. Checking the glass, Jotaro found that D'Arby had actually cheated again using a plan involving melting chocolate that had already been placed in the glass earlier. Seeing that D'Arby had once again cheated, Jotaro challenged D'Arby at his own game of poker.[42]

In 2001, Jotaro asks Koichi to go on a mission to Italy. His objective was to get a skin sample of a boy named Haruno Shiobana, which would then be given to the Speedwagon Foundation for analyzing.[67] Some time later, Koichi reported back to Jotaro that Haruno Shiobana, who now went by Giorno Giovanna, was a Stand user. Jotaro then revealed to Koichi that Giorno was the son of DIO and wanted to get the skin sample to confirm this. However, now knowing that he was a Stand user, Jotaro called off the mission.[68]

Although a Japanese protagonist, Araki modeled Jotaro Kujo after American actor Clint Eastwood, including his poses and catchphrases. Although the author said the character might seem "rough" compared to other Jump protagonists, Jotaro fits his own image of a hero perfectly as a "loner" who does not do the right thing for attention. Araki said the character wearing his school uniform in the desert has its roots in Mitsuteru Yokoyama's Babel II, and that if he were to draw the part over again, he would base the Stands on Tetsujin 28-go.[8] Araki said he had a lot of readers asking him to bring older characters back. Although he is not a fan of bringing them back simply for nostalgia, he did not hesitate having Joseph return to save his daughter because it is completely true to the character. The author thought of having Joseph drop out partway through due to his age, but ended up "playing it by ear" as serialization continued. He gave him the role of "navigator", introducing new readers to the Joestar family, DIO, Hamon and Stands, and his own Stand being a support ability rather than offensive.[9] Araki said he gave Avdol an "ethnic" design to have some sort of connection to Egypt and that at the time of serialization, he and most of the readers had a strong interest in the "birthplaces of civilization," making the design a "product of the times."[10] 041b061a72


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